Summary of the Articles of the Antarctic Treaty

Article I: Prohibits military activity, as “Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only.” Military personnel may conduct scientific research, and military equipment can be used in the service of scientific research.

Article II: Establishes freedom of scientific research and encourages cooperation in the service of science.

Article III: Parties agree to exchange research and program plans, scientific results, and scientific personnel, in the spirit of scientific cooperation.

Article IV: Discusses territorial claims and declares that signing the Treaty should not be construed as having any impact on territorial claims; declares that while the Treaty is in force no new territorial claims can be made.

Article V: No nuclear tests are allowed; if nuclear power is used Parties must follow international laws on its use.

Article VI: Defines the area covered by the Treaty as everything south of 60˚S latitude.

Article VII: Observers may be designated by Contracting Parties to carry out inspections of stations, equipment, and expeditions, and will have free access to all areas of Antarctica. Inspections are designed to ensure that the provisions of the Treaty are being followed.

Article VIII: Observers, scientific personnel residing at other nations’ stations, and their staff members are subject to the jurisdiction of the Party of their citizenship.

Article IX: Contracting parties to the Treaty shall meet regularly to discuss relevant matters.

Article X: Contracting Parties should strive to ensure that activities contrary to the spirit of the Treaty do not occur.

Article XI: Disputes between Contracting Parties should be resolved peacefully.