Protecting Antarctica

Antarctica and the Southern Ocean are at a crossroads. As the climate continues to warm and human activity in this remote wilderness increases, urgent protection is needed to secure a safe future for Antarctica and its remarkable ecosystems.

Chinstrap penguins porpoising.
Chinstrap penguins porpoising.
Phytoplankton bloom in Ross Sea_NASA Goddard
Phytoplankton bloom in Ross Sea. Image credit: NASA Goddard
Krill Swarm. Image credit: Jamie Hall

What’s happening?


Humans have been visiting, researching and working in Antarctica for over 200 years. Despite efforts to minimize our footprint, our presence has had an impact on this fragile wilderness.

Emerging threats such as the climate crisis, and growing industries like krill fisheries are destabilizing the delicate balance of Antarctic ecosystems. Expanding shipping in the Southern Ocean increases the risk of maritime incidents, including oil spills and maritime pollution.

Urgent protection is needed to build resilient ecosystems and prevent irreversible damage at this time of rapid change. ASOC advocates for a precautionary approach and strong, enforceable environmental protection at the highest level of Antarctic governance.


Antarctica is changing

Human activity in Antarctica is increasing. While the Antarctic Treaty System provides a valuable framework for protecting parts of Antarctica, it is not enough. Be part of the push for positive change as we work for stronger environmental protection for Antarctica in the following areas.

fishing vessel at work


Antarctic waterfall

Climate Crisis

xanthoria elegans


crabeater seals on iceberg
Crabeater seals on ice
baleen whale
Humpback whales feeding
Spilhaus Currents map_John Nelson
Image credit: John Nelson
Under ice algae
Sea ice algae on ice
Emperor penguin and chicks
Emperor penguin adults with chicks

Why it’s important

antarctic protection

Everything is connected.

Antarctic life interacts with the rest of the ocean in many ways that benefit humans. Tiny plants and animals living under seasonal sea ice absorb carbon dioxide, helping to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and keep the planet cool. 

Whales that feed on the abundant krill in Antarctic waters migrate north in the winter, fertilizing the ocean with their nutrient-rich, lifegiving feces. These priceless ecosystem services are performed for free every day.

Exactly how changes in the Antarctic marine environment will affect humans remains a great unknown. 

This uncertainty is part of why it is so important that we protect these fragile ecosystems from the unpredictable, irreversible changes caused by the climate crisis and other human activities.

Lamaire Channel


What ASOC is doing

We continue to work with our members, partners and a global network of Antarctic advocates to raise the profile of the Southern Ocean, world-leading science and the urgent need for Antarctic protection, both on land and at sea.


How we work

As the only environmental NGO invited to observe Antarctic Treaty meetings, we represent the Antarctic conservation community at the highest levels of Antarctic governance. We work within the system to protect Antarctica in the following ways.

Small fishing vessel


ASOC advocates for strengthening liability and accountability for states and operators who cause damage to the Antarctic environment, threatening its land, waters, and species.

The question of who is liable for environmental damage in Antarctica is critical to its protection. An environmental emergency in Antarctica would be disastrous and costly to remedy, with grave consequences for fragile ecosystems in areas that are extremely difficult to access. 

Despite decades of negotiation, the question of who is liable for damage caused in the Antarctic Treaty Area remains unanswered. If there was a major environmental incident in Antarctic waters, there are several unknowns: who is responsible for coordinating the cleanup response? Who pays for the repair work? Who ensures that it’s done, and done well? How is this enforced? And what happens if the responsible parties refuse to do the work? Without answers to these questions, an environmental crisis could turn into a global disaster. 

As the Exxon Valdez oil spill showed us in the 1980s, environmental emergencies in remote areas are costly, time-consuming and resource-intensive to remediate. Establishing liability for environmental damage in Antarctica is essential, both to promote accountability among those operating in Antarctica, and to discourage high-risk activities.

ASOC continues to advocate for the adoption of preventative regulations that both deter parties and operators from taking risks that could cause environmental damage, and establish liability in advance of an incident.

adelie and chick beak to beak


ASOC supports the full and effective implementation of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. 

Antarctica’s Environmental Protocol provides a legally binding set of conservation measures that covers most activities in the Antarctic Treaty area. However, although it entered into force in 1998, some important provisions of the Protocol still haven’t been put in place. For example, we are still waiting for a system of protected areas to be created, and a liability regime to be established.

ASOC campaigns for full and effective implementation of the Environmental Protocol so Antarctica will be governed to the highest standard of environmental protection possible. 

CCAMLR Opening 2018


As the only official environmental NGO observer to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings, ASOC advocates for science-based policies within the existing Antarctic governance framework.

Our primary focus is on building Antarctic ecosystem resilience in the face of the climate crisis. We advocate for policies that reduce the stress on Antarctic ecosystems from human activities such as fishing, tourism, and scientific research. We strongly support deep cuts to global carbon emissions, which represent the greatest threat to the integrity of Antarctica today.

Photo credit: Bob Zuur

Sediment cores


ASOC acknowledges and supports the world-class climate research conducted by Antarctic researchers.

We present timely, science-based policy proposals at meetings of Antarctic governance organizations, providing Treaty parties with reliable information on how to protect the Antarctic environment. We also share this information with the broader public, promoting actions that will secure a climate-safe future.

Photo credit: Marlo Garnsworthy / IODP

“The global coronavirus pandemic has made it clear that we need to change our behavior and work to protect nature instead of exploiting it. ASOC calls on CCAMLR to demonstrate leadership and fulfill their commitment to meaningful protection of the Southern Ocean.”

Claire Christian
Executive Director, Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition
Rally for Antarctica, May 2022. Brandenburg Gate, Berlin. Photo: Saskia Uppenkamp.
Rally for Antarctica, May 2022. Brandenburg Gate, Berlin. Photo: Saskia Uppenkamp.
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